Polyphenol uses in biomaterials engineering
Shavandi A., Bekhit A.E.-D.A., Saeedi P., Izadifar Z., Bekhit A.A., Khademhosseini A.
Polyphenols are micronutrients obtained from diet that have been suggested to play an important role in health. The health benefits of polyphenols and their protective effects in food systems as antioxidant compounds are well known and have been extensively investigated. However, their functional roles as a �processing cofactor� in tissue engineering applications are less widely known. This review focuses on the functionality of polyphenols and their application in biomaterials. Polyphenols have been used to stabilize collagen and to improve its resistance to degradation in biological systems. Therefore, they have been proposed to improve the performance of biomedical devices used in cardiovascular systems by improving the mechanical properties of grafted heart valves, enhancing microcirculation through the relaxation of the arterial walls and improving the capillary blood flow and pressure resistance. Polyphenols have been found to stimulate bone formation, mineralization, as well as the proliferation, differentiation, and the survival of osteoblasts. These effects are brought about by the stimulatory effect of polyphenols on osteoblast cells and their protective effect against oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, polyphenols inhibit the differentiation of the osteoclast cells. Collectively, these actions lead to promote bone formation and to reduce bone resorption, respectively. Moreover, polyphenols can increase the cross-linking of dentine and hence its mechanical stability. Overall, polyphenols provide interesting properties that will stimulate further research in the bioengineering field. � 2018 Elsevier Ltd