Effect of extraction system and grape variety on anti-influenza compounds from wine production residue
Bekhit A.E.-D.A., Cheng V.J., Zhang H., Mros S., Mohamed Ahmed I.A., Al-Juhaimi F.Y., Bekhit A.A., McConnell M.
The effects of extraction process using three different solvents [50% aqueous acetone (Ace/w), 50% aqueous ethanol (Eth/w) or 50% aqueous methanol (Meth/w)] and wine production residue (seeds, skin and pomace) from Pinot noir [PN] and Pinot meunier [PM] on the phenolic profile and anti-influenza activity of their extracts were determined. Meth/w extracts resulted in the lowest (P < 0.05) total phenolic content (TPC) of seed extracts compared to other solvents, but the solvent extraction systems did not have an effect on TPC of pomace and grape skin. Pinot meunier pomace extracts had protective effects against influenza virus A at a concentration of 1 mg/mL whereas both seed and skin extracts were effective at 10 mg/mL. Meth/w extracts exhibited generally higher anti-influenza activity than other extracts. The anti-influenza activity of wine production residue extracts is not dependent on TPC. � 2018 Elsevier Ltd